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Lost of limb doesn’t mean lifelong handicap for salamander. After time grow up new leg. It is the same like a refresh of damaged brain, spinal chord, eye or heart. Salamander can regenerate biggest hurt without lasting aftermath and even without scars. Gone regeneration ability of some animals admire scientist for a long years. In last time they play with idea bring about regeneration of stuffs and organs in human body and heal so aftermaths of hurts, sickness and age.

There, where salamander have deep hit in place of leg, is nothing special on the first look. But in cells, which live down hurt, are very interesting changes. Some of them make suicide. These cells duties like “guards” of specialized cell of bones, muscles, gristle, skin, vessels or nerves. Cells “guards” inspect on other cells to seek own profession and make in limb these works, for what are dare.

In hit after lost limb clean “guards” field out. That offer they to specialized cells chance direct magic transformation. It doesn’t matter, what made cells earlier. Now are they changing on special type of cells and doing cluster called blastem. Cells in are first like the second, set very quickly and on the end incoming specialized function. From blastem enate new bones, gristle, vessels; nerves and skin are forming to the new limb.

By look out this wonderful process have generation of scientist opinion that human organism can nothing alike. Cells of blastem do “big comeback”. In many of view look like cells of very young embryo, from which can evolve in practice some cells of body. Scientists were confident human cells cannot do alike comeback.

“Comeback” of cells blastem on blank start of evolution is only illusive. If we swap on body of salamander blastems arisen by destroying different organs, show blastem isn’t fully universal. Cells created in place of amputation leg “can” make new leg, but creation of new part of body “cannot”.

Tricky is even illusive unity of cells in blastem. They looks alike, but aren’t equality.When scientist watched, where came cells in blastem from and where in new limbo ended, was evidently that cells know policy about shoemaker (keep own shoelast). Cells of skin change to blastem, but in new leg are again in skin. Alike from cells of bones grow up to bone and cells from muscle ended in new formed muscle. Big evolve “comeback to history” by regeneration of limb of salamander is partly illusion.

When scientist watched, how cells rising in new leg, found that between salamander’s cells and human’s cells isn’t big different. And some of biologists have so hope they can make effect that hurt or sick part of body can regenerate.

Scientist by that time don’t know how by “wakeup” of gens start regeneration of human eye and its most vulnerable parts, for example light layer of retina. Experiments on salamanders are only first shy short steps on way to fill this highflying final. Next experiments promise regeneration of hearth damaged by infarct. To this example issue scientists from aquarium fishes Danio Rerio. Damaged hearth muscle heals himself with tissue scar (because of them is possible make top output) by human. By Danio hit heals some different (with new muscle cells).

Scientists have opinion that two different processes rival in healing hearth. One goes to making new muscle, the second ends with new tissue. By human is making of new muscle “overprinted” with process of making new tissue. By Danio is it vice versa. Gen called mps1 help them in this problem. When scientist gave this gen out by fishes, hearth heals like human one. Hearth heals himself with tissue.

Scientist play with idea “swing” disequilibrium of processes in damaged human hearth muscle in favour of making new muscle cells. Even here stand regeneration medicine on start of long way.

Story from year 1999 testifies for group of optimists. Its main heroes are between American biologist Ellen Heber-Katz from Philadelphia Wistar Institute mousse of laboratory phylum MRL. Elen Heber-Katz used these mouses for research of heavy dysfunction of immunity system like a group of another scientists.

Before testing one from medicaments she pleased her student to marked mousses with piercing in ears. Every from mousses have in ears one and only combination of holes and mistaking with another mouse was impossible. On the end of experiment surprise waits on scientists, because all mousses have ears not only without holes, but even small scar. Ellen Haber-Katz suspected her student she forgot on mousses piercing. But student defend herself, because she marked mousses!

In this time was decided about one from the most dramatic experiments, what Ellen Heber-Katz to this date did. She bought new mousses of stain MRL and penetrates their ears. By post check-up was she approver of fabulous process. Holes in ears of mousses healed over and hit disappeared.

Mousses MRL have ability of regeneration, which is near to more primitive chordates like fishes or buffalos. After experiment Ellen HaberKatz have shock, when damaged hearth muscle to mousses. Hearth heals over like by fishes Danio. Not tissue but muscle cells replaced damaged cells.

Can mamals regenerate their tissues in a similar way like newts or fish? Ellen Heber-Katz is strongly inclined towards this idea. her reasearch aims to find out what makes the mice from MRL species so exceptional and what is behind their ability to regenerate. Detailed studies have shown that they burn sugars in unusual way.
The cells in the body of adult MRL mouse deal with substantial part of glucose levels just as some embryos consisting of few cells. These cells have the abiltiy mutate into any type of more than 200 types of body cells.

is this unusual metabolism system a key to tissue regenaration in mamals' bodies? these questions will be answered in the next research. nowadays it seems that using newts regeneration methods for healing injuries may not be just sci-fi stuff.
Nick: JirkaPraha, 14.9.2009 10:18:23
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